Neo Sumerian

(Third Dynasty of Ur, 2112 BC to 2004 BC)


These armies represent the resurgent forces of the so called ‘Sumerian Renaissance’ up to the end of the third millennium. With the collapse of the Akkadian Empire following the death of the Shar-kali-sharri, the Guti descended onto the Mesopotamian plain. A tribal, uncivilised people, their rule ushered in a period of declining fortunes resulting in a deteriorating social order and inflationary grain prices.

Left largely unmolested by the fractured Gutian leadership, southern Mesopotamian cities such as Ur, Uruk, Umma, and Lagash ruled relatively autonomously being able to simply paying tribute to their ‘barbarian’ overlords and thereby govern themselves.

This eventually led to a Sumerian discontent with the status quo leading to the rise of Gudea of Lagash, who raised an army and briefly campaigned against the Elamites, bringing booty back to finance his rapacious building projects. Other centres of dissent arose with the end of Gutian domination occurring when the warlike Uruk king Utuhegal won his victory, defeating the Gutian king Tirigan at the battle of Kamuruki (c. 2115 BC). Shortly after Utuhegal died and Sumerian power passed to the Ur king, Ur-Nammu, who firmly established the glory that was to become the Third Dynasty of Ur.

Much of the Sumerian culture that is passed onto us today stems from the Ur III period, so called because it is the third time that Ur is listed in the Sumerian king list. Ur-Nammu defeated the state of Lagash and with the death of Utuhegal he declared himself an independent king of Ur and went about immediately strengthening his city’s fortifications. He then campaigned against his former masters of Uruk and restored order which had broken down during the time of the Gutians by conducting both land and naval campaigns whereby he ‘‘put the road in order from the south to the north’’. This opened up the coveted overseas trade route of Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha, which flowed through Ur greatly improving the city’s fortunes. As evidenced by a new royal title, he was the first to be called "King of Sumer and Akkad" and his efforts resulted in a state that comprised at least the southern part of Mesopotamia. Like all great rulers, he built much, including the very impressive ziggurats of Ur and Uruk, which acquired their final monumental dimensions in his reign.

Politically, Ur-Nammu established an alliance with Mari to combat the growing threat of Amorite incursions. Militarily, he mounted operations against the traditional enemy Elam which had seized several Sumerian city-states during the time of Gutian rule. His defeat of a coalition of Elamite Kings restored those cities back into the Sumerian fold. Looking north-east, Ur-Nammu conducted punitive attacks against the Guti who conducted numerous raids as they had not yet been expelled completely from the Mesopotamian landscape. It was in one of these operations that Ur-Nammu was killed in 2095 BC. Ur-Nammu's reign had established Ur as the dominant military power in the region and regained much that had been lost to Guti and Elamite invaders over the past 100 years or so.

His vengeful son, Shulgi, carried out an immediate punitive attack against the Guti following the death of his father. This resulted in reprisal attacks by the Guti triggering a series of tit-for-tat raids. Continued campaigning followed and Shulgi expanded his campaigns further adding to his conquests. He attacked the Hurrians in the north repeatedly along with near constant wars for twenty years, including against the old foe Elam. With all these wars Shulgi added to his original title of ‘‘mighty man, king of Ur’’, the title of ‘‘king of the Lands of Sumer and Akkad’’ as well as ‘‘king of the four quarters’’, indicating a military dominance in Mesopotamia unseen for many generations.

Even so, by the end of his reign he built the “Wall Facing the Highland” to keep out the encroaching Tidnum Amorite tribes. In the last five years of Shulgi’s reign (2051–2047 BC) Ur was involved in repeated campaigns against coalitions of partially subdued Hurrian city-states in northern Mesopotamia. The campaigns of 2049–2047 BC were directed against another rebel coalition of Kimash, Hurti, and Harshi peoples but despite the demads placed on Shulgi by these constant wars, Ur was still the predominant military power of Mesopotamia at the the time of his death...it was a considerable achievement.

After Shulgi died, his son Shu-Sin (2037 B.C.), became king. More wars were fought with the Amorites. Shu-Sin lost Assyria and erected a huge wall between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, just north of Babilla, to help keep out the Amorites. The wall was 170 miles long, and breached the banks of both rivers. He also campaigned in the Zagros Mountains and defeated a coalition of local tribes. He had extensive trade relations with the Indus Valley and elsewhere. Later he had to build additional walls around the cities of Ur and Nippur, to protect against the Amorites.

It was later, during the reign of Ibbi-Sin, the fifth ruler of Ur III, that raiders from the Martu tribe (Amorites), finally broke through the walls. This resulted in widespread panic, and a general breakdown in communications throughout the Empire. Even before that, Ibbi-Sin's situation was insecure and even pathetic at times, throughout much of his reign. With this Amorite attack, the realm began to disintegrate almost immediately. Much of the time Ibbi-Sin was left confined to his capital city of Ur.

As a portent of things to come, the Elamite city of Eshnunna, broke away in 2028 BC, and the rest of Elam the next year. The Ensi's of most of his cities deserted him, and fended for themselves against the Amorites, who were ravaging Sumer. Seeing this, one of Ibbi-Sin's generals, Ishbi-Erra, rebelled and was given rule over the city of Isin, in an attempt to placate him.

These calamities prompted Elam, which had earlier been invaded by Ibbi-Sin, to resume hostilities. Ur came under attack from both Elam, and the Martu (Amorites). Ur was besieged, taken, and utterly destroyed by the invading Elamites and their allies among the Iranian tribes. (It is not known what part the Martu in the northwest, played in the final battles). King Ibbi-Sin was led away captive, and no more was ever heard of him. Sumerian songs and hymns, record in moving fashion the unhappy end of Ur.




Troop Type
Number
Q
P
CV
Range
Pts
General (mounted or on foot)
1
-
*
5
n/a
50
Sub General (mounted or on foot)
0-2
-
*
5
n/a
50
Army Standard
0-3
-
*
-
n/a
20
Captain
1 per unit
R
*
5
n/a
20
                - change to veteran/levy
any
V/L
*
5
n/a
25/15
4-Ass Straddle Car / Platform Cart; or
0-2
V
U /P
special
4
20/25
                - exchange for 4-Ass Battle Carts
0-1
V
S
special
4
35
Royal Guard Spearmen
0-1
V
P
4
n/a
16
                - equip as Axemen
0/all
V
P
5
n/a
18
Royal Guard Archers
0-1
V
P
2
4/8
9
                - equip with composite bow  (option)
0-1
V
P
2
8/16
11
Citizen Spearmen
2-6
L
P
3
n/a
4
                - upgrade to Regulars
0-3
R
P
3
n/a
7
                - upgrade to Shielded front rankers (regular/levy); or
0-half
R
S
3
n/a
8/5
                - equip all spearmen with Pike
all
R
P
3
n/a
7
                - exchange for axemen
0-half
R
P
4
n/a
7
Citizen Archers
1-3
R
U
n/a
4
4
Skirmishers
0-1
R
U
n/a
4
2
Levy Slingers
0-1
L
U
n/a
4
2
Martu Wild Tribesmen
1-2
R
P
special
2/4
7
Guti Wild Tribesmen
0-2
R
U
special
2/4
6
Martu and Guti Skirmishers
0-1
L
U
n/a
4
2
Martu and Guti Archer Skirmishers
0-2
R
U
n/a
4
4
Elamite Archers
0-2
R
U
2
4/8
4



Neo Sumerian Allies and Enemies
 
Dynastic Sumerian
Akkadian
Early Eblan
Old Elam
Zagros Mountain
Hattian Kingdoms
Neo -Sumerian
Amorite Nomads
Magan
Harrapan
2700 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2600 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2500 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2400 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2300 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2200 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2100 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2000 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Special Rules & Notes
  • Up to half the army can be made up of Martu, Guti or Elamite troops.
  • The use of Composite bow is debatable in this period. However, if both players agree, it may be taken.





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